Wednesday, December 31, 2014

31 December 1973 - Cruyff Returns To The Top

On 31 December 1973, Dutch international Johan Cruyff won the European footballer of the year award, the Ballon d'Or. It was the second time for Cruyff, who first won the award in 1971.

He began the calendar year in the middle of his ninth season with Ajax and led them to a treble consisting of the 1973 European Super Cup, their sixth Eredivisie title, and their third consecutive European Cup. Then, in the summer of 1973, he moved to Barcelona.

Internationally, Cruyff's Netherlands team had qualified for the 1974 World Cup, edging Belgium out at the top of the group on goal differential.

The award catapulted Cruyff into another successsful year in 1974, with Barcelona winning their first La Liga title in 14 seasons and the Dutch advancing to the World Cup Final, eliminating Brazil, East Germany, and Argentina along the way. Although the Oranje lost to West Germany in the Final, Cruyff was named Player of the Tournament and went on the win his third Ballon d'Or, the first player in history to win the award three times.

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

30 December 1972 - There's A Doc In The House

On 30 December 1972, Manchester United appointed Scotland boss Tommy Docherty as the club's new manager. Always a controversial figure, Docherty's tenure was tumultuous, involving relegation, promotion, and an affair with the wife of United's physiotherapist.

The former Scottish international had started his managerial career as a player-manager for Chelsea in 1961 and moved to a number of different clubs, including Rotherham United (1967-68), Queens Park Rangers (1968), Aston Villa (1968-70) and FC Porto (1970-71) before taking the Scotland job in 1971.

When Old Trafford came calling in 1972, Docherty took charge of a United side that was slipping down the Division One table and sitting in 17th place after a 1-3 Boxing Day loss away to Derby County. Although his first match in charge was a 1-3 loss to Arsenal at Highbury, Docherty successfully kept the club above the relegation zone, finishing the season in 18th position.

He was less fortunate the next season. Following the retirement of Bobby Charlton, the transfer of Denis Law, and the implosion of George Best, United were relegated to Division Two for the 1974-75 season, but returned to the top flight at the first opportunity.

After winning the FA Cup in 1977, news broke that summer that Docherty was having an affair with Mary Brown, wife of club physiotherapist Laurie Brown, and he was sacked in July. He and Mary eventually wed and had two children. After spells with a number of clubs, he retired in 1988.

Monday, December 29, 2014

29 December 2007 - The Death of Phil O'Donnell

On 29 December 2007, 35-year old Motherwell midfielder and captain Phil O'Donnell collapsed during the second half of a Scottish Premier League match against Dundee United. He was taken to the hospital where he was pronounced dead. The cause was later determined to be left ventricular failure.

O'Donnell had started his professional career with Motherwell in 1990 and claimed a Scottish Cup winner's medal in his first season. He continued to impress, winning the Scottish PFA Young Player of the Year Award in 1992 and 1994. In 1994, he transferred to Celtic for a fee of £1.75 million, which remains the highest fee ever earned by a Motherwell player.

He earned another Scottish Cup medal and won a league title with Celtic, but his time in Glasgow was plagued by injuries and he left the club in 1999. After an uneventful time at Sheffield Wednesday, where he made only 20 appearances in four seasons, he returned to Motherwell in 2004.

Motherwell were enjoying a successful season in 2007-08. Going into the match on 29 December, they were sitting third in the table, which is where they would finish the season.

O'Donnell was just about to be substituted before he collapsed. His nephew, David Clarkson, was also playing for Motherwell that day and had to be substituted himself after seeing his uncle taken away in an ambulance.

After O'Donnell's death, supporters around the world paid tribute, some by leaving mementos, including scarves and shirts, at Motherwell's Fir Park ground.

Sunday, December 28, 2014

28 December 1998 - 'Pool Sinks Newcastle

On 28 December 1998, Liverpool rallied from a 2-0 deficit to secure a 4-2 win against Newcastle before a crowd of 45,000 at Anfield. All four of Liverpool's goals came in an 18-minute span in the second half.

The two sides entered the match separated by four points in the table, with Newcastle in 12th place on 24 points. Liverpool were in 9th place, but were suffering from the fallout of their recent Christmas party scandal, which reportedly included strippers and Jamie Carragher in a Hunchback of Notre Dame costume.

Newcastle took the lead with a 29th-minute blast from midfielder Nolberto Solano, but were forced into a defensive strategy a minurte later when midfielder Dietmar Hamann received his second yellow card and was sent off. Nevertheless, they were able to capitalize on a Liverpool defensive lapse in the second half and substitute Andreas Andersson put the visitors ahead 2-0.

Liverpool's comeback started deep into the second half when striker Michael Owen (pictured) deflected a Carragher shot into the back of the net. Five minutes later, striker Karl-Heinz Riedle equalized with a rebound after keeper Shay Given blocked his first attempt. After another eight minutes, Given blocked a shot by Owen, who also caught the rebound and slotted home the eventual game-winner. Riedle scored an insurance goal five minutes later to complete his brace.

Saturday, December 27, 2014

27 December 1931 - Long Live The King

On 27 December 1931, legendary center forward and Welsh international John Charles was born in Swansea. Known as the "King John," Charles starred for both Leeds United and Juventus.

In 1948, at the age of 17, he started his career with Leeds United, who were then in the Second Division. He played at Elland Road until 1957, scoring 150 goals in 297 league appearances, and helping the side earn promotion to the First Division in 1956.

In 1957, Charles moved to Juventus for the then-British record fee of £65,000. While in Italy, he won three Scudettos (1958, 1960, 1961) and two Coppa Italia titles (1959, 1960). His success with Juventus brought him several individual accolades, starting with the 1958 Italian Player of the Year award. He was later voted the greatest foreign player ever to play in Serie A and, in 2001, was the first non-Italian elected to the Azzurri Hall of Fame.

He returned to Leeds in 1962, but failed to recapture his former glory, making only 11 appearances. He then spent time with Roma (1962-63), Cardiff City (1963-66), Hereford United (1966-71), and Welsh side Merthyr Tydfil (1972-74) before retiring in 1974.

Charles was elected to the English Hall of Fame in 2002. Leeds have honored their former hero by naming both the West Stand and the reserve stadium in his honor. He died in 2004.

Friday, December 26, 2014

26 December 1936 - A Gift For Celtic That Kept On Giving

On 26 December 1936, future Celtic and Scottish international center forward Stevie Chalmers was born in Glasgow.

Chalmers began his career with Kirkintilloch Rob Roy FC in 1953, and spent time in England with Newmarket Town in England (1955-56) before returning to Scotland with Ashfield FC (1956-59). Later in 1959, however, the 23-year old signed with Celtic, where he would make his mark on history by scoring the winning goal in Celtic's 2-1 victory over Inter in the 1967 European Cup Final in Lisbon. The win made the Glasgow side the first British team to win the trophy and earned them the nickname "the Lisbon Lions."

He played 13 seasons for Celtic, claiming 6 league titles, 4 Scottish Cups, and 5 League Cups in addition to the European title.

Chalmers left Celtic in 1971 and played for Morton (1971-72) and Partick Thistle (1972-75) before retiring in 1975.

Thursday, December 25, 2014

25 December 1914 - The Christmas Truce

On 25 December 1914, British and German troops stationed on the front lines near Ypres, Belgium engaged in an impromptu football match in the no-man's land between their respective trenches. The match was part of the Christmas Truce that had begun the night before when the opposing sides took a break from hostilities to sing Christmas carols and exchange gifts.

On Christmas morning, the British Royal Welch Fusiliers left their trench to meet the German troops. Someone produced a football, though no one involved could later recall who provided it or where it was obtained, and the game began. According to Fusilier Corporal Bernie Felstead, "It was not a game as such--more of a kick-around and a free-for-all. There could have been 50 on each side for all I know." The game lasted about a half hour and no one kept score.

In most areas, the truce lasted through Christmas night, but it extended to New Year's Day in some spots.

The Christmas Truce has been popularized in music, books, and movies, including the 2005 film Joyeux Noël.

Wednesday, December 24, 2014

24 December 1938 - The Blues Get A White Christmas

On 24 December 1938, Chelsea beat Liverpool 4-1 at Stamford Bridge. It was a considerable upset, as Chelsea were sitting in 20th position at the time, while Liverpool were in third.

Unfortunately for the Blues, only 6,801 people showed up for the match, which remains Chelsea's lowest attendance for a top-division match. The small crowd was due in part to weather, as London had received about a foot of snow in the days leading up to the match, making travel difficult.

The win did little to change Chelsea's fortunes for the season, as they finished in 20th, one spot above the relegation zone. Liverpool finished in 11th.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

23 December 1889 - They Peaked A Bit Early

On 23 December 1889, Dr. Alexander Mackay and a group of British workers at the Rio Tinto mining company in the city of Huelva formed the Huelva Recreation Club. Now known as Recreativo de Huelva, it is Spain's oldest football club, earning it the nickname "El Decano" (the Dean).

The club enjoyed early success, winning twelve straight regional Andalusian titles from 1903 to 1914. Since then, however, the club's fortunes declined, with Huelva spending most of the seasons in their history in La Liga's Segunda, Segunda B and Tercera divisions. They have spent only five seasons in Spain's top flight, most recently from 2006-07 to 2008-09.

Huelva currently compete in the Segunda División, having finished in eighth there last season.

Monday, December 22, 2014

22 December 2004 - Racism Rears Its Ugly Heads

On 22 December 2004, FIFA fined the Spanish Football Federation €60,000 as punishment for racist chants during a friendly between Spain and England at the Bernabéu Stadium the previous month.

The abuse consisted of monkey chants directed against England's black players, including defenders Ashley Cole and Rio Ferdinand, as well as substitutes Jermaine Jenas, Shaun Wright-Phillips (pictured), and Jermain Defoe. While such chants have a regrettably long history in football, the chants at the Bernabéu were notable for the pervasive participation of the crowd--according to one spectator, 80% of the crowd were chanting.

The event came on the heels of an earlier incident in September, when Spain manager Luis Aragonés had been overheard calling Thierry Henry a "black shit" when trying to motivate Henry's Arsenal teammate, Spanish international José Antonio Reyes.

The incident drew wide condemnation from authorities and commentators in several countries, including Spain itself. Afterward, the Spanish Football Federation began work on an anti-racism campaign.

Sunday, December 21, 2014

21 December 1957 - A Summers Day In December

On 21 December 1957, Charlton Athletic staged a record-setting comeback to beat Bill Shankly's Huddersfield Town in a Second Division match at the Valley.

The hosts got off to a difficult start when center half Derek Ufton went off injured in the 17th minute. The rules at the time did not allow for substitutes, so Charlton had to play on with only 10 men. Visiting Huddersfield took the advantage and were up 2-0 by halftime.

At the half, Charlton left winger Johnny Summers (pictured) moved to center forward. He also switched boots, throwing out his old ones for a new pair. The changes appeared to help, as, in the 48th minute, he scored to close the gap to 2-1. But Huddersfield responded and, by the 62nd minute, had extended their lead to 5-1. Then the momentum shifted. Within 19 minutes, Charlton were unbelievably in front 6-5, after four more goals from Summers and one from Buck Ryan.

Still, the drama had not ended. Huddersfield scored an 86th-minute equalizer, then, right before the whistle, Ryan powered the game-winner past the Huddersfield keeper. Charlton got the win, 7-6. It was the first and only time that an English league team scored 6 goals and lost.

After the match, Summers told reporters that he would hold on to those boots for the rest of his life. Sadly, he died five years later from leukemia. He was 32 years old.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

20 December 1983 - A Little Lesson In Hubris

On 20 December 1983, unknown thieves stole the Jules Rimet Trophy from the Brazilian Football Association headquarters in Rio. To date, it has not been recovered.

In 1946, the original World Cup trophy was named the Jules Rimet Trophy, after former FIFA President Jules Rimet, who organized the first World Cup tournament. The trophy is awarded to the winning team, but only those teams with three World Cup victories get to take permanent possession. Brazil were the first country to do so, winning their third title in 1970. Since then, both Italy and West Germany have earned permanent trophies as well.

The trophy was stolen before in 1966, just before the start of the tournament in England, but it was found under a garden hedge by a dog named Pickles, whose owner collected a £6,000 reward. The BBC reported that, at the time, Brazilian authorities claimed such a theft would never happen in their own country, as even Brazilian thieves love football too much to steal the trophy.

To replace the trophy stolen in 1983, Kodak of Brazil commissioned a copy which the company donated to the BFA.

Friday, December 19, 2014

19 December 1909 - Pubs, Beer, And Football, Who Could Ask For More?

On 19 December 1909, Ballspiel-Verein Borussia 1909 e. V. Dortmund was founded in a pub in the city of Dortmund, located in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. They would go on to become one of Germany's most decorated clubs, with multiple league and cup titles, as well as Germany's first European trophy.

The founding members were unhappy with their former club, Trinity Youth, which was run by a strict authoritarian local priest. Reportedly, he tried to prevent the formation of the new club, but was blocked at the door of the pub where the meeting was held. As perhaps a further sign of rebellion from the church side, the club took the name "Borussia" from a nearby brewery.

Dortmund reached a peak in the late 1950s, winning back-to-back Bundesliga titles in the 1955-56 and 1956-57 seasons. They repeated that feat in the 1994-95 and 1995-96 seasons and currently have six league titles. In 1966, they defeated Liverpool 3-2 at the end of extra time to claim the Cup Winners' Cup, the first international honor for a German club.

Thursday, December 18, 2014

18 December 1961 - A Name Only An ENT Could Love

On 18 December 1961, the North American Football Confederation and the Football Confederation of Central America and the Caribbean merged to form the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football, better known by its acronym, CONCACAF.

As one of the six FIFA confederations, CONCACAF is in charge of World Cup qualification for its member teams. It also runs its own competitions, including the Gold Cup for international sides and the CONCACAF Champions League for clubs.

At the international level, the confederation has been controlled by the United States and Mexico who, between the two of them, have earned more than half of the confederation's World Cup appearances. Mexico has advanced the furthest, making it to the World Cup quarterfinals in 1970 and 1986 (both times as the host country). El Tri also dominates at the club level, with the three highest-ranked clubs at present (Cruz Azul, Pachuca, and Deportivo Toluca) all coming from Mexico's Primera División.

Curiously, CONCACAF also includes three South American teams--Guyana, French Guiana, and Suriname.

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

17 December 2007 - Yet Another Brazilian Hat-Trick

On 17 December 2007, FIFA presented its World Player of the Year awards. It was a sweep for Brazil, with Kaká and Marta named World Player of the Year and Women's World Player of the Year, respectively. It was the first--and to date only--time a single nation claimed both awards.

Earlier that year, Kaká led AC Milan to the 2006-07 Champions League title, finishing as the tournament's top scorer with 10 goals. Marta, meanwhile, had helped her club, Swedish side Umeå IK, claim a double, winning both the league and the Swedish Cup. She also led them to that year's UEFA Women's Cup Final, where they lost to Arsenal LFC, 1-0.

The 2007 award was the second consecutive Player of the Year award for Marta, who won it a third time in 2008.

Brazil walked away with a total of three honors, as FIFA conferred the 2007 Presidential Award on Pelé for his years of service to the game.

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

16 December 2002 - This...Is...Baggio!

On 16 December 2002, Brescia forward Roberto Baggio scored his 300th career goal in the home side's Serie A win over Piacenza. With that goal, he became the first Italian in over 50 years to reach 300, and only the third Italian ever to do so.

Baggio started his professional career in Serie C1 with Vicenza (1982-85) but soon moved to bigger stages with Fiorentina (1985-90), Juventus (1990-95), AC Milan (1995-97), Bologna (1997-98) and Inter (1998-2000), before moving to Brescia in 2000. By the time he retired in 2004, he had scored 318 goals in all competitions, third among Italians only to Silvio Piola (364) and Giuseppe Meazza (338). Along the way, Baggio amassed a number of honors, including two Scudettos (1994-95 and 1995-96) and the 1993 Ballon d'Or.

Despite his shooting prowess, he is widely remembered for a goal he did not score. In the 1994 World Cup Final, Italy were tied with Brazil 0-0 at the end of extra time. In the ensuing penalty shootout, Brazil were leading 3-2 after four kicks. Baggio stepped up to take the Italians' fifth and final kick and sent it over the crossbar to give the Brazilians the win.

Monday, December 15, 2014

15 December 1995 - Bosman Beats The Bossman

On 15 December 1995, the European Court of Justice issued its opinion in a trio of cases involving Belgian midfielder Jean-Marc Bosman (right). The decision rewrote the football rules governing transfers by allowing players out of contract to change clubs without a fee.

Bosman initiated the legal action on 8 August 1990 by filing suit against his then-current club, RC Liège, because the Belgian club refused to allow his transfer to French second-division side US Dunkerque. Although Bosman was out of contract, Liège still owned his playing rights and refused the transfer unless Dunkerque coughed up a transfer fee of 1,200,000 Belgian francs, which the French club declined to do.

The European Court of Justice ruled that Liège's actions constituted an illegal restraint of trade prohibited by Article 39(1) of the EC Treaty. The court held that players out of contract were able to move between clubs without a transfer fee, provided they were moving between clubs in the European Union.

While the landmark decision opened the floodgates for footballer transfers, it came too late for Bosman himself, who, after short spells for lower-division sides in France and Belgium, was out of football by the time the court published its opinion.

Sunday, December 14, 2014

14 December 1935 - Drake Takes The Cake

On 14 December 1935, Arsenal topped Aston Villa 7-1 in a First Division match before a crowd of 60,000 at Villa Park. All seven of the Gunners' goals were scored by center forward Ted Drake, setting a record for most goals scored in a single match by one player in the English top flight.

Drake had joined Arsenal in March 1934, moving from Southampton for a transfer fee of £6,500. The following season, he scored a club-record 44 goals.

Having firmly established his prowess as a shooter, his 7-goal tally against Villa was nonetheless a surprise. In fact, Villa seemed to have the better of the chances in the first 15 minutes before the floodgates opened for Drake. By the break, he had hat-trick and after 60 minutes, he had two hat-tricks. In all, Drake took nine shots on the day, with one hitting the bar and one saved by the Villa keeper.

At the time, Drake's tally was a record in all of English football. Twelve days later, however, Tranmere's Bunny Bell scored nine against Oldham in a Third Division match. Still, Drake's effort remains a record for the top division.

Saturday, December 13, 2014

13 December 1981 - Liverpool Probably Should've Stayed Home This Time, Too

On 13 December 1981, Flamengo beat Liverpool 3-0 in the Intercontinental Cup before a crowd of 62,000 at Tokyo's National Stadium.

Since its creation in 1960, the Intercontinental Cup pitted the European champions against the South American champions. As winners of the European Cup in 1977 and 1978, Liverpool qualified for the Intercontinental Cup in both years, but declined both times. The 1981 match was thus the first appearance for both clubs.

The outcome of the match was never in doubt, as it became a showcase for the Brazilians' playmaker and captain, Zico, who created all three of Flamengo's goals. In the 12th minute, he sent a lob pass over the Liverpool defense to set up the goal by Nunes; in the 34th minute, he delivered a free kick that was slotted home by Adilio; and in the 41st minute, he sent a precision pass into the box for Nunes, who completed his brace.

The English side, meanwhile, was unable to penetrate Flamengo's stout defense and ended up on the wrong side of the 3-0 scoreline. For his efforts, Zico was named man of the match.

The 1981 match is Flamengo's only appearance to date in the Cup. Liverpool made it again in 1984, when they lost to Argentinian side Independiente.

Friday, December 12, 2014

12 December 2004 - Bernabéu Bomb Scare

On 12 December 2004, Spanish authorities evacuated Real Madrid's Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in response to a bomb threat from the Basque terrorist group ETA.

Real were nearing the end of their match against Real Sociedad with the score tied at 1-1 when, three minutes from time, officials stopped the match and directed the 70,000 fans in attendance to exit the stadium. It was the first time that a major Spanish sporting event was interrupted due to terrorist activity, but the second time that the Bernabéu itself had been targeted by ETA, who exploded a bomb outside the stadium before a Champions League match in May 2002. This time, fortunately, no bomb exploded, nor was anyone injured as the crowd exited the stadium. 

ETA, which stands for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Freedom"), is a Basque separatist organization with a violent history, claiming responsibility for 800 deaths since 1968. Real Sociedad is located in the Basque city of San Sabastián, which may be why their match against Real Madrid was targeted.

Police searched the stadium for hours, but never found a bomb. The match was replayed on 5 January 2005, with Real Madrid earning a 2-1 victory.

Thursday, December 11, 2014

11 December 1886 - Arsenal Dials It In

On 11 December 1886, Arsenal, then known as Dial Square FC, played their first match, defeating Eastern Wanderers 6-0. The match was played in an open field in London's Isle of Dogs.

Dial Square were founded earlier that year by a group of workers from the Dial Square workshop at the Royal Arsenal, located at Woolwich in southeast London. The club's founding members included Scotsman David Danskin (who captained the side for the match against Eastern Wanderers and had also purchased the club's first football) and Englishmen Jack Humble, Fred Beardsley, and Morris Bates.

The club played in red shirts obtained from Nottingham Forest. Both Beardsley and Bates had previously played for Forest and convinced their former club to donate the shirts.

On Christmas Day 1886, Dial Square changed their name to Royal Arsenal, then changed it again in 1891 to Woolwich Arsenal. In 1913, they moved to Highbury in north London and changed their name once more, this time dropping the "Woolwich" to be known simply as Arsenal. They have since become one of the most successful clubs in football, winning 13 top flight titles and 10 FA Cups.

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

10 December 1907 - Laurent Sees The Light Of Day

On 10 December 1907, French international Lucien Laurent was born in Saint-Maur-des-Fossés outside Paris. In July 1930, the then-22 year old forward scored the first ever World Cup goal, which was also his first of only two goals he scored for the national team in his career.

Laurent started his career with CA Paris, for whom he played from 1921 to 1930. In 1930, he went to work in a Peugeot factory and transferred to the company's team, Peugeot Sochaux. He also received his first call-up to the French national team that year, debuting in a 2-0 loss to Portugal in February 1930.

In July 1930, he traveled with Les Bleus to Uruguay to participate in the very first World Cup. Peugeot gave him time off to make the trip, but he was not paid to play and received only a small amount of money from the French Football Federation to cover expenses. France's opening match was played against Mexico before a crowd of 1,000 at Montevideo's Estadio Pocitos. Laurent's record goal came in the 19th minute, when he sent a 12-yard volley into the net from a pass by his teammate Ernest Liberati. France went on to win 4-1.

After the World Cup, Lucien returned to France and played for a number of different clubs. In 1940, he was taken prisoner by the Nazis while fighting for France and spent three years as a prisoner of war. Upon his release in 1943, he resumed his playing career for Besançon RC.

Upon his retirement in 1946, he remained in Besançon and continued to play in regular matches until he was 86 years old. By 1998, he was the last remaining member of that 1930 squad and thus the only one to see France win the World Cup that year.

He died in 2005 at the age of 97.

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

9 December 2001 - When Cranes Attack

On 9 December 2001, Uganda trounced Djibouti 10-1 at the Stade Amahoro in Kigali City, Rwanda. The match set the Ugandan record for margin of victory.

It was the teams' opening group stage match in the 2001 CECAFA Cup, which is the oldest active football tournament in Africa. It has been contested among the East and Central African nations since 1973.

As defending 2000 CECAFA Cup-holders, Uganda were heavy favorites over Djibouti, whose national team had yet to win a match in their history. Djibouti, however, initially appeared to be the more dangerous side, mounting a handful of attacks in the early stages of the match. They were fully supported by the crowd, who also booed every time the Ugandans gained possession.

The Ugandan side eventually took charge of the match in the 25th minute, when forward Alex Isabirye headed in the match's opening goal from a corner kick. By the break, the Cranes were up 3-0. In the second half, Uganda continued to press, while Djibouti fell apart. Isabirye finished with a hat-trick and the remaining seven goals game from six different Uganda players, plus one Djibouti own goal. Too add to the humiliation, Djibouti back Abdurhamane Mohamed was sent off in the 85th minute. Mohamed Said salvaged a late goal for the losing side, but it was small consolation as the final scoreline read 10-1.

Despite the offensive firepower shown in the auspicious start to their title defense, the Ugandans struggled for the remainder of the tournament. They failed to score another goal, losing to both Tanzania (1-0) and Burundi (2-0), and were eliminated from the competition.

Monday, December 8, 2014

8 December 1863 - Like Moses Coming Down From The Mountain ...

On 8 December 1863, the FA voted to approve the first Laws of the Game, setting forth a set of rules for the growing sport of football.

The Laws were drafted by FA Secretary Ebenezer Cobb Morley (pictured) and consisted of the following thirteen rules:

1. The maximum length of the ground shall be 200 yards (180 m), the maximum breadth shall be 100 yards (91 m), the length and breadth shall be marked off with flags; and the goal shall be defined by two upright posts, eight yards (7 m) apart, without any tape or bar across them.

2. A toss for goals shall take place, and the game shall be commenced by a place kick from the centre of the ground by the side losing the toss for goals; the other side shall not approach within 10 yards (9.1 m) of the ball until it is kicked off.

3. After a goal is won, the losing side shall be entitled to kick off, and the two sides shall change goals after each goal is won.

4. A goal shall be won when the ball passes between the goal-posts or over the space between the goal-posts (at whatever height), not being thrown, knocked on, or carried.

5. When the ball is in touch, the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground in a direction at right angles with the boundary line, and the ball shall not be in play until it has touched the ground.

6. When a player has kicked the ball, any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal line is out of play, and may not touch the ball himself, nor in any way whatever prevent any other player from doing so, until he is in play; but no player is out of play when the ball is kicked off from behind the goal line.

7. In case the ball goes behind the goal line, if a player on the side to whom the goal belongs first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick from the goal line at the point opposite the place where the ball shall be touched. If a player of the opposite side first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick at the goal only from a point 15 yards (14 m) outside the goal line, opposite the place where the ball is touched, the opposing side standing within their goal line until he has had his kick.

8. If a player makes a fair catch, he shall be entitled to a free kick, providing he claims it by making a mark with his heel at once; and in order to take such kick he may go back as far as he pleases, and no player on the opposite side shall advance beyond his mark until he has kicked.

9. No player shall run with the ball.

10. Neither tripping nor hacking shall be allowed, and no player shall use his hands to hold or push his adversary.

11. A player shall not be allowed to throw the ball or pass it to another with his hands.

12. No player shall be allowed to take the ball from the ground with his hands under any pretence whatever while it is in play.

13. No player shall be allowed to wear projecting nails, iron plates, or gutta-percha on the soles or heels of his boots.

Since 1882, the Laws have been administered by the International Football Association Board, which meets each winter to determine whether any changes to the Laws are required.